Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments, which potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk, consist principally of cash on deposit and cash equivalents held with one bank which exceed FDIC insured limits and certain short-term investments. Ongoing credit evaluations of the customer’s financial condition are performed and independent credit ratings for the associated counterparties are reviewed by the Company and collateral is not required. The Company's money market fund investment (recognized as cash and cash equivalents) is with what the Company believes to be a high quality issuer. The Company has not experienced any losses in such account.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
The Company considers any highly liquid investments with a remaining maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash and cash equivalents. The Company's cash and cash equivalents include cash on deposit and a money market fund. The Company reported cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash of $16.4 million as of September 30, 2018. See Note 7 for further details on the nature of the restricted cash.
The Company's held-to-maturity investments in U.S. government securities, commercial paper, and its overnight repurchase agreement are carried at amortized cost and any premiums or discounts are amortized or accreted through the maturity date of the investment. Any impairment that is not deemed to be temporary is recognized in the period identified.
Deferred Offering Costs
Deferred offering costs are expenses directly related to the Form S-3 filed with the SEC on August 31, 2018 and declared effective on September 14, 2018. These costs consist of legal, accounting, printing, and filing fees that the Company has capitalized, including fees incurred by the independent registered public accounting firm directly related to the Shelf Registration. Deferred costs associated with the Shelf Registration are reclassified to additional paid in capital on a pro-rata basis when the Company completes offerings under the Shelf Registration, with any remaining deferred offering costs to be charged to the results of operations at the end of the three-year life of the Shelf Registration. During the three months ended September 30, 2018, the Company charged $0.2 million to the results of operations for deferred offering costs associated with the Company’s previously effective shelf registration which expired during the period.
The Company accounts for the outstanding warrants associated with the June 2016 Public Offering and the March 2018 Public Offering as liabilities measured at fair value. The fair values of these warrants have been determined using the Black-Scholes valuation model ("Black-Scholes"). The warrants are subject to remeasurement at each balance sheet date, using Black-Scholes, with any changes in the fair value of the outstanding warrants recognized in the accompanying statements of operation. See Note 8 for further details.
The Company has no items of comprehensive income or loss other than net loss.
Revenue Recognition and Deferred Revenue
The Company has entered into arrangements involving the sale or license of intellectual property and the provision of other services. When entering into any arrangement involving the sale or license of intellectual property rights and other services, the Company determines whether the arrangement is subject to accounting guidance in ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“Topic 606”), which became effective in the current period (the Company has elected to use the modified retrospective approach for contracts that are not completed contracts and there was no cumulative adjustment recognized in the current period) as well as ASC 808, Collaborative Arrangements ("Topic 808"). If the Company determines that an arrangement includes goods or services that are central to the Company’s business operations for consideration, the Company will then identify the performance obligations in the contract using the unit-of-account guidance in Topic 606. For a distinct unit-of-account that is within the scope of Topic 606, the Company applies all of the accounting requirements in Topic 606 to that unit-of-account, including the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure requirements. For a distinct unit-of-account that is not within the scope of Topic 606, the Company will recognize and measure the distinct unit-of-account based on other authoritative ASC Topics or on a reasonable, rational, and consistently applied policy election.
Analyzing the arrangement to identify performance obligations requires the use of judgment. In arrangements that include the sale or license of intellectual property and other promised services, the Company first identifies if the licenses are distinct from the other promises in the arrangement. If the license is not distinct, the license is combined with other services into a single performance obligation. Factors that are considered in evaluating whether a license is distinct from other promised services include, for example, whether the counterparty can benefit from the license without the promised service on its own or with other readily available resources and whether the promised service is expected to significantly modify or customize the intellectual property.
The Company classifies non-refundable upfront payments, milestone payments and royalties received for the sale or license of intellectual property as revenues within its statements of operations because the Company views such activities as being central to its business operations. For the sale of intellectual property that is distinct, fixed consideration and variable consideration are included in the transaction price and recognized in revenue immediately to the extent that it is probable that there would not be a significant reversal of cumulative revenue in the future. For the license of intellectual property that is distinct, fixed and variable consideration (to the extent there will not be a significant reversal in the future) are also recognized immediately in income, except for consideration received in the form of royalty or sales-based milestones, which is recorded when the customer’s subsequent sales or usages occur. If the sale or license of intellectual property is not distinct, revenue is deferred and recognized over the estimated period of the Company’s combined performance obligation. For contractual arrangements that meet the definition of a collaborative arrangement under Topic 808, consideration received for any units-of-account that are outside the scope of Topic 606 are recognized in the statements of operations by considering (i) the nature of the arrangement, (ii) the nature of the Company’s business operations, and (iii) the contractual terms of the arrangement.
The Company's August 2013 development, license, and supply agreement with R-Pharm, CJSC (“R-Pharm”), combined with the supplemental arrangement in November 2014 (the “R-Pharm Agreement”), is a collaborative arrangement pursuant to Topic 808. The Company received a non-refundable upfront payment of $1.5 million from R-Pharm in August 2013 which is being recognized over the estimated relationship period of 70 months for the combined performance obligation that includes the license of intellectual property and the participation on a joint steering committee. The Company recognized revenue from this upfront payment of $0.1 million and $0.2 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively. The Company is entitled to receive other payments under the R-Pharm Agreement including development and sales-based milestones and royalties; however, the variable consideration was fully constrained as of September 30, 2018. The reimbursements due from R-Pharm for specified research and development costs incurred by the Company are classified as a reduction to research and development expense in the accompanying statements of operations. The reimbursements due to the Company are recorded as a reduction of expense when (i) the reimbursable expenses have been incurred by the Company, (ii) persuasive evidence of a cost reimbursement arrangement exists, (iii) reimbursable costs are fixed or determinable, and (iv) the collection of the reimbursement payment is reasonably assured. The Company has receivables for unpaid reimbursement amounts due from R-Pharm of $0.2 million and $0.3 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, which are presented in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the accompanying balance sheets.
Research and Development
Major components of research and development costs include clinical trial activities and services, including related drug formulation, manufacturing, and other development, preclinical studies, cash compensation, stock-based compensation, fees paid to consultants and other entities that conduct certain research and development activities on the Company’s behalf, materials and supplies, legal services, and regulatory compliance.
The Company is required to estimate its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with clinical research organizations, clinical site agreements, vendors, and consultants in connection with conducting ibrexafungerp clinical trials and preclinical development. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations which vary from contract to contract, and may result in payment flows that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided to the Company under such contracts. The Company’s objective is to reflect the appropriate development and trial expenses in its financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which the services and efforts are expended. For clinical trials, the Company accounts for these expenses according to the progress of the trial as measured by actual hours expended by CRO personnel, investigator performance or completion of specific tasks, patient progression, or timing of various aspects of the trial. For preclinical development services performed by outside service providers, the Company determines accrual estimates through financial models, taking into account development progress data received from outside service providers and discussions with applicable Company and service provider personnel.
Costs related to filing and pursuing patent applications, as well as costs related to maintaining the Company's existing patent portfolio, are recorded as expense as incurred since recoverability of such expenditures is uncertain.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, based on the Company’s principal or, in absence of a principal, most advantageous market for the specific asset or liability. The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy to classify and disclose all assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis, as well as assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis, in periods subsequent to their initial measurement. The hierarchy requires the Company to use observable inputs when available, and to minimize the use of unobservable inputs when determining fair value. The three tiers are defined as follows:
Amortization of Debt Discount
The Company's term loan in the amount of $15.0 million (the “Term Loan”) with Solar Capital Ltd. (“Solar”) is recorded net of debt discount which comprised issuance costs, customary closing and final fees, and the fair value of the warrants issued in conjunction with the Term Loan (Note 8). The resulting debt discount is being amortized over the term of the Term Loan using the straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method, and the amortization of debt discount is included in the accompanying statements of operations.
The Company provides for deferred income taxes under the asset and liability method, whereby deferred income taxes result from temporary differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that the Company believes is more likely than not to be realized.
The Company recognizes uncertain tax positions when the positions will be more likely than not sustained based solely upon the technical merits of the positions.
Certain modifications made to an outstanding incentive stock option award at any time after the initial grant dates which are considered to be “material modifications”, as defined within the Internal Revenue Code, may result in the affected award being recharacterized as a non-statutory stock option. The effects of any recharacterization modification for purposes of income tax accounting are recognized on a prospective basis.
The Company measures and recognizes compensation expense for all stock-based payment awards made to employees, officers, and directors based on the estimated fair values of the awards as of grant date. The Company values equity instruments and stock options granted to employees and non-employee directors using the Black-Scholes valuation model. The value of the award is recorded as expense over the requisite service periods and the Company recognizes forfeitures as they occur in the period.
Basic and Diluted Net Income (Loss) per Share of Common Stock
The Company calculates net income (loss) per common share in accordance with ASC 260, Earnings Per Share ("Topic 260”). Basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share was determined by dividing net income (loss) applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.
The following potentially dilutive shares of common stock have not been included in the computation of diluted net income (loss) per share for all periods as the result would be anti-dilutive.
Effect of Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-02, Leases, or ASU 2016-02. The new guidance requires lessees to recognize the assets and liabilities arising from leases on the balance sheet. For public companies, ASU 2016-02 is effective for annual periods, including interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2018, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that the implementation of ASU 2016-02 will have on the Company’s financial statements (see Note 7).
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef